Aims In patients undergoing medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (MOWHTO), soft tissue opening on the medial side of the knee is difficult to predict. When the load bearing axis is corrected beyond a certain point, the knee joint tilts open on the medial side. We therefore hypothesised that there is a tipping point and defined this as the coronal hypomochlion.
Patients and Methods In this prospective study of 150 navigated MOWHTOs (144 consecutive patients), data were collected before surgery and at three months post-operatively. In order to calculate the hypomochlion, we compared the respective changes to the joint line convergence angle (JLCA) with the post-operative axis of the leg. The change to the medial proximal tibial angle accounts for only about 80% of the change to the femorotibial angle; 20% of the correction can therefore be attributed to non-osseous, soft-tissue changes.
Results We were able to demonstrate a linear change of JLCA in a range of 0° to 5° of valgus which started when the post-operative long-leg axis was corrected beyond 2° of valgus.
Conclusion We found that the coronal hypomochlion occurs at 2° of valgus.
Take home message: It is recommended to plan realignment for medial open wedge high tibial osteotomy at a maximum of 2° valgus.
Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:628–33.
E. Heijens: Performed surgeries, Writing the paper.
P. Kornherr: Data collection, Data analysis, Graphics, Writing the paper.
C. Meister: Data collection.
No benefits in any form have been received or will be received from a commercial party related directly or indirectly to the subject of this article.
This article was primary edited by J. Scott and first proof edited by G. Scott.
- Received January 30, 2014.
- Accepted January 25, 2016.
- ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery