The two main categories of Achilles tendon disorder are broadly classified by anatomical location to include non-insertional and insertional conditions.
Non-insertional Achilles tendinopathy is often managed conservatively, and many rehabilitation protocols have been adapted and modified, with excellent clinical results. Emerging and popular alternative therapies, including a variety of injections and extracorporeal shockwave therapy, are often combined with rehabilitation protocols. Surgical approaches have developed, with minimally invasive procedures proving popular.
The management of insertional Achilles tendinopathy is improved by recognising coexisting pathologies around the insertion. Conservative rehabilitation protocols as used in non-insertional disorders are thought to prove less successful, but such methods are being modified, with improving results. Treatment such as shockwave therapy is also proving successful. Surgical approaches specific to the diagnosis are constantly evolving, and good results have been achieved.
Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:1299–1307.
No benefits in any form have been received or will be received from a commercial party related directly or indirectly to the subject of this article.
This article was primary edited by D. Rowley and first-proof edited by G. Scott.
- Received February 18, 2013.
- Accepted June 26, 2013.
- ©2013 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery